Tax Goods And Services At The Same Rate, When Goods

Tax Goods And Services At The Same Rate, When Goods

Australia’s ongoing debate about reforming the Goods and Services Tax might not be relevant to the overflowing garbage dumps of Lagos, the Pacific Ocean trash patch, or the massive electronic graveyard of Guiyu in China. These three far-flung locations are proof of the incessant global habit of purchasing stuff and then throwing it away later – and Australians are just as guilty as any other.

It’s easy to see why the planet is full of trash. For example, in the United States, more than 80% of goods are not reusable and 90% end up as waste within six weeks. Australians currently create the second highest amount of waste per capita in the world.

The take-make waste economy is based on the belief that there will always be enough resources. This has led to a flood of cheap, mass-produced products flooding the market. These products are only good for a very short time and will end up in landfills or as litter.

This problem can be addressed by encouraging recycling. However, it does not address the problem of household consumption. This has led to an international trade in waste that allows wealthy countries to ship their recyclables to Asia, Africa, and South America. It can be difficult to track where they go.

China’s recent decision to limit recyclable materials that it accepts is a clear indication of the fact that financial incentives are not effective in keeping them out of landfill.

This, combined with the increasing volatility and scarcity in resources needed to make goods, makes it clear that we need a more materialistic and less wasteful method of consuming. This is what we can do to encourage it. One way to encourage this is to tax material goods at higher rates than services.

Change Is Tangible Goods

In most countries, economic growth is to growth in waste generation. Recent moves by the European Union have demonstrated that the two can be separated by investing heavily in a service-oriented economy, rather than one that is based on tangible goods.

Australia currently has a broad-based 10% sales tax that applies to all taxable goods and services. The future of the Goods and Services Tax is currently under discussion. However, accounting firm KPMG submitted to Treasury that there was an opportunity to recognize that not all consumption is the same.

Service-based businesses focus on the sale of tangible goods, while service-based businesses focus on selling products. The bed in a hotel, the lawnmower of a landscaper, and now the Uber cars and other assets in the sharing economy are all examples of goods that have a life cycle beyond one transaction. These goods create recurring income for the service provider. These are just a few examples of how economic growth can be achieved. Without increasing the output and consumption of raw materials.

Australia’s economy is already heavily service-base. 82% of business incomes go to services and only 8% are for goods. This is quite typical for developed economies that have distanced themselves greatly from China’s manufacturing competitiveness.

Despite this, developed economies have the highest levels of goods consumption. International free trade agreements will likely increase the flow of cheap imported goods to Australia.

Make Taxes Count

The revamped GST will encourage future service industries and reflect. The environmental and social costs of using disposable goods (mostly imported). This is not possible by taxing services and goods at the same rates.

We’re comfortable with the idea that higher taxes could be impose on harmful items. The tax on alcohol, cigarettes, and luxury cars has all been successful in showing consumers the external cost to society.

Statistics Is More Than A Numbers Game

Statistics Is More Than A Numbers Game

All of us are familiar with statistics that we see every day: statistics on sport, weather and stock market. The sort of thing that could appear in The Age or The Sydney Morning Herald’s number crunch.

Statistics is all about data. It’s the art of designing methods to gather, summarise and visualise data, as well as present inferences.

The fundamental concepts of variability and uncertainty are the basis of all that is possible. To help you understand the vast array of statistics we encounter, I will break it down into three categories.

First, statistical facts. These facts can be interesting by themselves or when compared with other facts for different times and places. These facts may seem like data but they are actually summaries.

What the percentage of Australians age 15 or over who not marry in 2001? It is 32%. The 2001 Australian Census is behind the 32% figure. It is a summary of Census data and has no statistical uncertainty.

Data collected from surveys of populations using randomly selected units are more complex. Variability is a factor as different samples can give different results.

Summarized As Percentages Statistics

The results of sample survey data are usually summarize as percentages, proportions or averages. These inferences concern the population. Because of sampling variability error or other types of error, they will not be exact inferences.

The 2007 National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing ABS revealed that approximately 3.2 million Australians (20% of those aged 16-85) suffered from a mental disorder during the 12 months preceding the survey.

(This article is not intend to discuss the uncertainty inherent in estimates like this one or how it is interpret. Let’s call it the second category of sample survey statistics.

These survey results, such as the one in our example, are crucial if we want to make informed decisions in order to realize our aspirations.

Let me now turn to the third category, which is the vast array of other uses for statistics. This includes professionals who use statistics statisticians, and those whose primary activity is not statistics.

Subcultures Of Statistical Statistics

Statistics are use in distinctive ways by different sectors of the economy, such as agriculture.

However, if you search the internet with key phrases like statistics on agriculture, you’ll most likely find statistics about agriculture and not how statistics can improve agricultural practice. This requires a more target search, but statistics can be use in many different ways.

Helen Newton Turner (1908-1995), a long-serving member of the CSIRO, applied statistics to animal production, later to sheep breeding. Modern versions of her research are still in use today.

Comparative crop variety testing is the work of statisticians, which provides information about variety performance for Australian farmers. Statistics are also use by the mining, manufacturing, and service industries.

It is difficult to name any area of science, technology or industry, government, or even the humanities that does not have its own subculture of statistical data its own type of data, its own collection of questions, models, and methods to answer these questions using the data and a statistical literature.

Statistics is evident in every area of human endeavor. This can be done through statistical facts, sample-population analysis, or any other informal or formal method of answering questions of interest. This statistical activity does not have to be done by statisticians, as I will show.

All Aspects Of Health Are Affect By This Role

As a guide to where we want to go, we might start with summary statistics about mortality and morbidity. Surveys can be use to get more information about specific topics than what we have from our routine data collection.

One example is the mental health survey. Biostatistics and epidemiology work together to identify risk factors and understand disease patterns.

Biostatistics can use to design, conduct, and analyze clinical trials in order to evaluate the effectiveness of vaccines, drugs or devices, as well as treatments.

It is widely use in preclinical biomedical research where cells lines and model organisms are analyze in order to conduct the necessary studies before a drug is approve for human clinical trials.

Environmental Protection Industry A Job Creator

Environmental Protection Industry A Job Creator

Australia and China are taking a very different approach to the treatment of jobs and industries that provide goods and services in environmental protection.

Major investors in Australia are planning for the potential impact of the Coalition winning power. They plan to axe the carbon price and demolish the clean energy finance system. Due to regulatory uncertainty, and lack of solid returns, they expect that private funding will be divert away from large-scale renewable energy thereby starving the sector.

China, however, recently announced that it would elevate environmental protection to a pillar business and will receive government support through tax breaks and subsidies to combat pollution. It involves staggering sums of money.

China has pledged to increase the output of all environmental protection industries to 4.5 billion yuan (US$730billion) by 2015. This is an average annual growth of 15%. This is nearly 9% of China’s GDP in 2012. It’s equivalent to almost 50% of Australia’s GDP in 2012.

China has announced that it will spend US$275 million over five years to improve air quality. This is roughly twice its annual defense budget. This is a huge sum, even if you consider Chinese standards.

A Missing Pillar In Election Policies Environmental

Coincidentally economic pillars are also the it metaphor for Australian politics. Both Labor and the Coalition have built their economic policies around these pillars in this election. Five pillars held by the Coalition, seven by Labor Party.

Let’s focus on the five economic pillars of the Coalition’s policy platform, as it is likely that the Coalition will form the next government. These are manufacturing, advanced services and agriculture exports. Education and research is also include.

The economic pillars and policies of the Coalition don’t make any reference to the environment protection industry.

Although it might be hidden in advance service, the Coalition’s policy doesn’t mention it. Advanced services are referred to as highly diversified sector, and is particularly mention by engineering, financial, and architectural services.

Delivering a cleaner, more sustainable environment” is the 19th policy theme in the Coalition’s policies. This emphasizes the direct actions on climate change over the carbon tax and creates a one-stop shop for environmental approvals.

Throughout the Coalition’s policies, there are calls for reducing regulation and restrictions on business, especially the carbon tax and mining tax.

The Coalition’s overall impression is that environmental protection is viewed as a restriction on industry and should be minimized (like trips to the dentist) rather than a business opportunity.

Is It A Pillar Or The Entire Foundation?

Although it is innovative to think of environmental protection as an individual industry, it may miss the larger point that the entire economy is dependent upon it

Gaylord Nelson, a late US senator, famously stated, The environment is the wholly own subsidiary to the economy, and not the other way around.

Instead of seeing environmental protection as a sector that competes with other industries. We should see it as the foundation for all our economic and social goals.

As an environmental law teacher, I often use the metaphor of a tree. Social and economic goals such as housing and jobs are the fruits we want to achieve. While education, good governance, justice and a healthy ecosystem are the roots that support the tree.

We can see environmental protection as the root or foundation. That sustains social and economic goals like jobs, housing, security, peace, and health. This allows us to avoid the common and arid dichotomy between jobs and the environment.